SEE THIS LINK FOR BLOG SUMMARY AND SOME REASONS TO REJECT ORTHODOX JUDAISM

Click this link for TOPICAL INDEX OF POSTS

About Me

A fairly accurate, but incomplete INDEX of Posts & good overview of this blog READ SOME REASONS TO REJECT ORTHODOX JUDAISM my April 2014 post or click link above. Highlighted words lead to other posts almost all in my blog. Born into an Orthodox Jewish family (1950's) and went to Orthodox Yeshiva from kindergarten thru High School plus some Beis Medrash.Became an agnostic in my 20's and an atheist later on. My blog will discuss the arguments for god and Orthodox Judaism and will provide counter arguments. I no longer take comments. My blog uses academic sources, the Torah, Talmud and commentators to justify my assertions. The posts get updated. INDEX OF POSTS SEE MAY 2017 or click link above.

Wednesday, June 28, 2017

Kuzari Argument Part 13

Updated 7/14/2017 for several typos for the date of the Sun miracle.

This is a continuation of of my Kuzari Posts begun here.  It might be helpful to skim my prior Kuzari argument posts, but this post is more or less a stand alone, at least for people who have some familiarity with the Kuzari argument. 

This post will flesh out an alleged  miracle and it’s consequences I very briefly cited in June  2014.

Lets examine one version of the Kuzari 'proof' that the Exodus with all the miracles and the Sinai revelation really occurred.

Rabbi Gottlieb (RG) Principle: Let E be a possible event which, had it really occurred, would have left behind enormous, easily available evidence of its occurrence. If the evidence does not exist, people will not believe that E occurred.

This can be briefly restated as: If  people believe an event occurred, then evidence must exist for the event's occurrence. 

[RG means to say a mass of people. RG does not mean if a only a few people.]

Lets try to apply this principle to the ‘Event’ = On October 13,1917 in Fatima, Portugal: 
The Sun miraculously  danced or performed other miracles in the Sky. Other miraculous things occurred:  wet clothes became suddenly and completely dry; wet and muddy ground that had been previously soaked because of the rain that had been falling became dry.”

The main source I will use is the book The Sun Danced - Myth, Miracles, and Modernity by Jeffrey S. Bennett 2012.  He is an Assistant Professor of Sociology and Religious studies.  Some Sociologists study origins of myths, their evolution, use in society etc: Such disciplines have much more relevance to religion and myth formation as opposed to Math or Philosophy or Math Philosophy.

Beginning in the spring of 1917, three  shepherd children living near Fatima reported apparitions of an Angel, and apparitions of the Virgin Mary, who the children described as the Lady of Fátima. They also claimed a miracle would occur.

Page 113 -  The children claimed a miracle would occur in order that all should believe.  70000 to 100000 people gathered near the children. [ I have seen sources that had figures as low as 30000. There was a large mass of people at the event.]

Page 116 - And indeed an alleged supernatural events happen on  10/13/1917 “For the vast majority of those present, there was no doubt that something supernatural had occurred.” [I want to stress some very important points. We have eyewitness testimony of thousands who believe that something miraculous occurred at Fatima, just like Kuzari proponents claim there were eyewitnesses at Mt Sinai. But there is a big difference. We actually know for a fact that there were many thousands at Fatima who claimed something supernatural occurred, while we have no evidence of anybody even being at Mt Sinai.]

If you read the book it describes more mythology develops around the story: For example Page 167 - 168 Hundreds of sick and dying came to the apparition site for miracle cures and alleged success stories circulate - many more come. Claims that soil from the site cure people. Page 178 A bomb placed beside the azinheira failed to explode.  (Page 94 Azinheira - an oak tree - apparitions had occurred there. See my post Tree animism in the Bible ).  Page 120 Vandals cut down the Azinheira or so they think ! They cut the wrong tree down a sign God protects it and his people from anti-clerics.


[I have no doubt many people at the site  did not accept the miracle of the sun.  But is that really relevant ? We don’t know every alleged witness to Mt Sinai accepted it was a revelation from G-d.  Besides the RG Principle does not require every person accept the story. For the Sun Miracle the vast majority of witnesses believed that on October 13, 1917 the supernatural had occurred. Can thousands of eyewitnesses  be wrong ? Moreover the fact that some at Fatima experienced the supernatural event somewhat differently does not disprove the event.  Eyewitness testimony is like that, and perhaps God chose some to see  the miracle one way and others to see it somewhat differently.]

Page 124 The apparition claims spread beyond the local sphere, becoming translocal and national-level realities. 

Page 1 More than twenty million participate in the apparition cult. Every year several million travel from around the world to the apparition site.  The Sun miraculously danced proving the children visions were of divine origin.  

The miracle is sanctioned by the Catholic Church. 

The story eventually is used to fight communism. 

Page 4 - It is a National Miracle

Page 117 Accounts of the miracle are passed down as family history. [Just like the Sinai story was allegedly passed down from alleged witnesses to an alleged  supernatural seminal event to their children. Would my father lie to me about the supernatural events of October 13, 1917 ?  Plus, thousands of children hear other children talk about the supernatural events of October 13, 1917 as those other children heard from their Uncles or Fathers. And so after many generation millions believe the miracles of October 13, 1917. If millions believe a supernatural event can millions be wrong ?]

[What is interesting about the story: The children had  primed people for the anticipation of a miracle. Many of the witnesses  already  believed in the supernatural already. {And as I have written in my prior Kuzari posts priming of the witnesses and prior belief in supernatural by the witnesses were also present at the alleged Mt Sinai event.}  The story is rooted in religious and political subdivisions in 1917 and earlier Portugal. {Could the the Mt Sinai story have similar kinds of roots - religious and political subdivision amongst the ancient Israelites ? Propaganda purposes for one reason or another ?} The intertwining of a popular religious movement with Portugal History and the appropriation of a religious movement for political purposes and the cults relationship to the rise of Authoritarianism Politics. {hmm}. Religions and Mythology don’t develop or operate in a vacuum like  Event--------> Belief in Miracle/Religion/Mythology. It is a much more nuanced as the book explains for this Fatima miracle.] The Miracle of the Sun is UNIQUE as far as I know.
If it is so easy to fool people with a Sun miracle why have
not other religions made use of it ? And arguably is was a Nation 
changing event for  Portugal and was used to fight communism. It 
must be a true miracle. Convinced ?

Sunday, June 4, 2017

Kuzari Argument Part 12

It would be helpful to skim my prior Kuzari posts begun in Part One

Lets examine one version of the Kuzari 'proof' that the Exodus with all the miracles and the Sinai revelation really occurred.

Rabbi Gottlieb (RG) Principle: Let E be a possible event which, had it really occurred, would have left behind enormous, easily available evidence of its occurrence. If the evidence does not exist, people will not believe that E occurred.

This can be briefly restated as: If people believe an event occurred, then evidence must exist for the event's occurrence. 


Lets try to apply this principle to the ‘Event’ =  Thousands of people saw enemy aircraft. (This is eyewitness testimony that gets written up in the press as actually happening.}

Turns all those thousands of people were wrong and so was the press. 

From 
http://www.csicop.org/si/show/mass_delusions_and_hysterias_highlights_from_the_past_millennium/ 

"British South Africa, 1914 In the war scare setting of British South Africa in 1914, local newspapers erroneously reported that hostile monoplanes from adjacent German South West Africa were making reconnaissance flights as a prelude to an imminent attack. The episode coincided with the start of World War I. Despite the technological impossibility of such missions (the maneuvers reported by witnesses were beyond those of airplanes of the period and their capability of staying aloft for long periods), thousands of residents misperceived ambiguous, nocturnal aerial stimuli (stars and planets) as representing enemy monoplanes (Bartholomew 1989)."

The monoplane scare  is yet another example of masses of people misinterpreting the event(s),  here clearly due in part because of  preconceived prejudices. This is yet another example of how even masses of people can misinterpret events and evidence for those events. The RG principle is not a reliable {eta principle to determine if people's beliefs about events are true or not true.} 

Continued Kuzari Argument Part 13 

Monday, May 29, 2017

INDEX OF POSTS BY CATEGORY

I think this is a complete index of posts including dates, as of June 28, 2017. It is organized roughly by category, but there is so  much overlap. And the post's content may overlap categories. Very rarely did I put the same post into two different categories. 

Many posts have multiple parts. Usually I provided the titles and dates of the first part only. {eta 5/30/2017 I added the links.}

If you desire a summary of my blog see this post
Some Reasons to Reject Orthodox Judaism 4/2/14.  It has links to many (but not all) of  my other blog posts and is an incomplete index of posts.

Book Reviews

The Challenge Of Creation - by Rabbi Slifkin 11/19/16 - a critique of RS’s apologetics

The Science of God - Schroeder Chapter 9 - 12/9/2013 a critique of Schroeder’s apologetics

The Science of God - by Gerald Schroeder Chapter 1 thru 4  12/9/14 a critique of Schroder’s apologetics.

The Tenacity of Unreasonable Beliefs - Fundamentalism and the Fear of Truth by  Solomon Schimmel, 11/29/14 with my additional commentary and discussion of some common apologetics, some  reasons why religions persist and more.

Torah Holidays - Origins/Pagan Parallels

The Torah Scapegoat - Azazel  10/22/13

Yom Kippur Origins  10/27/13 Pagan Parallels

Passover Origins; & short note on Human Sacrifice  11/11/13

Sabbath, Day Seven and Moon Cults or Fertility Cults 8/18/13

Torah Rituals/Laws - Pagan Parallels - Repudiation of Apologetics

Proof of God from Circumcision by the Jews on the eighth day of life  8/12/13

'Statute Forever' in the Bible  3/2/14 Are the Torah laws divine or just superstitions ? Refutes Rambam style apologetics.

'Cut Off" in the Bible  2/27/14 Are the laws and their punishments divine or just superstitions. Refutes Rambam style apologetics.

Explanations of Pagan Customs in Judaism with some notes on Maimonides  3/18/14 - includes refutes of Rambam style apologetics.

The Bible Serpent and Magic  2/26/15

Human Sacrifice in the Bible  1/14/14

Torah Discrimination or Unfair Laws, Pagan Parallels

The Bible, the Brother, and the Widow  2/4/14

The Bible, The Husband, and The Virgin  2/3/14

Suspected Adultery and the Bible Remedy  1/18/14

The Bible, The Priests, The Female and the Disabled  2/17/14 

Oral Law Part Two - Treatment of Women - Sexist laws 

Challenges to the Torah and Orthodox Jewish Narrative

Some Reasons to Reject Orthodox Judaism   4/2/14

The Dangers of Circumcision as found in the Talmud  1/15/14

Circumcision and Maimonides 3/18/14

Who Wrote the Bible  12/10/15 - Strong evidence the whole Bible can not be from the Mosaic period.

The Challenge of Noah,  11/3/16 - the Noah story as an argument against Orthodox Judaism, refutations of some Orthodox Jewish apologetic responses.

Jewish Oral Tradition  8/27/16 

Genesis and Evolution  9/27/13 - Some discrepancies and why they are irreconcilable in intellectually honest fashion. 

Genesis and the Big Bang  9/10/13 Some discrepancies between Genesis and modern cosmology  and why they are irreconcilable in intellectually honest manner.

Proof /Disproof of God from Kosher Animals  1/10/14

Proofs of Orthodox Jewish Narrative Repudiated

Kuzari Principle or Argument  Part 1  7/24/13 ( These posts include Rabbi Gottlieb’s and Rabbi Kelemen’s versions among others either directly or indirectly.) Probably most Orthodox Jews would consider this argument the strongest argument for Judaism. Some use it to "prove" the existence of G-d. As of May 29,2017 I devoted more posts to this "proof" than any other.  I have also included links to several other Ex-Orthodox Jews who address the argument in a different fashion than myself. The argument may have merit to distinguish the claims of one religion/myth from another but it has too many weaknesses to be used as valid evidence or proof  for the alleged Mount Sinai Divine revelation or the existence of G-d.

Kuzari argument part 2  1/27/14

Kuzari Part 3 6/23/14

Kuzari Argument Part 4  7/13/14

Kuzari Part 5  8/23/15

Kuzari Argument Part 6 9/4/15

Kuzari Argument Part 7 11/16/15

Kuzari Argument Part 8 11/30/15

Proof of God from Miracles or Kuzari Argument Part 9  12/26/15

Kuzari Argument Part 10  12/28/15

Kuzari Part 11  12/29/15

Kuzari Part 12 6/4/2017

Kuzari Argument Part 13 6/28/2017  A 'mass' miracle involving the 'Soun'.

Proof of God via Jewish Survival, Jewish Suffering, and the Bible Predictor  8/12/13

Proof of God from Israel     1/28/15

Proof of God from Prophecy    1/27/15 - also includes comments on proofs from Israel.

Proof of God from Circumcision by the Jews on the eighth day of life  8/12/13

Proof of God from Gematria ,Bible Codes 7/23/13

Proof /Disproof of God from Kosher Animals 1/10/14

Proof of God from Mummy  10/14/15 Supernatural preservation ?

Proof of God from Prayer- Miraculous Recoveries 7/12/15

Proof of God from Hebrew  5/15/15 Is Hebrew script divine ?

Proof of God from Purim Fest 1946 or Prophecy of Nazis in Megillah    3/17/15

Proof of God from Guarantees or Holy Sage Statements   1/27/15

Proof of God based on Claim of Prophecy of Nazis in the Talmud    11/26/14

Proof / Disproof of God based on Fallow  11/25/14

Proof of God from Gaza Rockets  8/5/14

Proof of God from Secrets in Holy Texts   5/16/14 Included are some examples: Life Span, Moon Renewal

Kalam Cosmological proof of God repudiated by Theology  2/16/14 - Does Genesis even describe creation Ex-Nihilo ? If not, then the proof backfires.

Proof of God from Life; Genesis 2:7  8/27/16 Pagan Parallels, Genesis false myth        

Proof of God from Miracles or Kuzari Argument Part 9 12/26/15

Proof of God from Coincidences in Bible and Hebrew Bible Codes 11/3/15 

Proof of God from Morality    5/27/14

Proofs of God Repudiated 

Proof of God Burden 5/27/17  - Who has the burden of proof ?

Proof of God from the Gaps, Sherlock Holmes, and Absence of Evidence 3/10/16 - faulty reasoning.

Proof of God from Free Will, Justice, Consciousness, BLANK  8/4/15

Proof of God from Thermodynamics 12/19/15 also includes additional refute that God must be the Designer.

Proof of God from Fine Tuning    1/16/15 I do not think Rambam would approve of this argument. 

Kalam Cosmological Proof of God - Premises and Conclusion repudiated    6/11/14, includes Laws of nature from God ?

Proof of God from Big Bang  9/8/13

Proof of God from Morality    5/27/14

Proof of God from Origin of Life  - 9/2/13

Proof of God through Design 8/20/13

Proof of God from Design Part 2 or Disproof of Evolution 1/18/16

Miscellaneous

Saul, The Witch, and the Ghost 7/21/16 - Tenach belief in ghosts, witches. Do we go up or down after we die ?

Tree Animism in the Bible    1/1/15

Bible Patriarch Ages 8/2/13

Origins of some Torah/Bible laws and the Jewish Chosen People Idea    7/10/14

Moshe became horny and suspicion of Torah from Mount Sinai 9/5/13

Saturday, May 27, 2017

Proof of God Burden

UPDATED Thru May 26,2017 , May 30, 2017 

For competing beliefs who has the burden of proof ? 

This post is not about proving or disproving a particular belief. It is about who shares the greatest burden of proof when it comes to competing beliefs. {ETA May 30, 2017 - On whom does the burden of proof fall more greatly on.}

The answer must consider at least the following:

1) Ranking  the burdens of proof.

2) The nature of the belief.

3) Null Hypothesis.

4) Consequences of the belief.

(ETA 5/28/2017 The 4 ‘principles’ I have outlined are not mutually exclusive but may work together. See below) 

Consider three people, call them T, AT, AG.

 Ranking  the Burdens of Proof

It is usually the case there is a scale of the burden of proof. This will become clear as you read this post.

The Nature of the Belief

a) The person making any claim of belief has at least some burden of proof.

Consider this question: Is mental telepathy real ?

T - I believe it is

AT - I believe it is not real. 

AG - I have no belief on the matter.

AG is making no claim of belief. It can be argued AG has the least burden of proof.

b) The more extraordinary the person’s belief  the more the burden falls on that individual.

Consider the belief that walking on the lines on concrete pavement causes bad luck. Then consider the belief that wealth is correlated with health.  The first belief would have a higher burden of proof than the latter belief. {ETA May 30, 2017 - The burden of proof falls more greatly on the first belief.}

Or consider this question: Is mental telepathy real ?

T - I believe it is

AT - I believe it is not real. 

AG - I have no belief on the matter.

Mental telepathy if real would require  rethinking much  of science. It is an extraordinary claim. The order of the burden of proof is T, then AT. AG is essentially neutral and so perhaps he has the least burden of proof. {ETA May 30, 2017 - The burden of proof falls more greatly on T.}

Another Example

Consider this question. Do you believe a man was 100% dead and after sometime rose from the grave.

T - I believe it.

AT - I do not believe it.

AG - I have no belief on the matter.

A 100% dead man coming back to life is an extraordinary claim. The order of the burden of proof is T, then AT. AG is essentially neutral and so perhaps he has the least burden of proof. {ETA May 30, 2017 - The burden of proof falls more greatly on the T.}

Null Hypothesis

Typically when we do a study of the effectiveness of a new drug, the Null Hypotheses is the drug does not work. Then evidence is gathered to overturn the Null Hypothesis.
We don’t start with the Null Hypotheses that the drug does work and seek to overturn that Hypothesis.  In other words,  the burden of proof is laid on the person believing  the drug does work.

Did Humans evolve from prior primates ?

AT - I believe they did

T - I believe it did  not happen

AG - I have no belief on the matter

The Null Hypothesis is Humans Did not Evolve from Primates.

Using the typical Null Hypothesis approach, AT has the greatest burden of proof.  

Consequences of the Belief

Consider this:

A man is accused of murder.

T - I believe he did it.

AT - I don’t believe he did it.

AG - I have no belief on the matter.

Since a life is at stake, T has the greatest burden of proof. {ETA May 30, 2017 - The burden of proof falls more greatly on T.}

Conclusion 

Consider Orthodox Judaism (OJ)

T - I believe it is true

AT - I don’t believe it is true

AG - I have no opinion on the matter

Lets apply the principles I have outlined:

First: Is OJ an extraordinary belief ? I think everybody will agree it is. The greatest burden of proof is on T. {ETA May 30, 2017 - The burden of proof falls more greatly on T.}

Second: The Null Hypothesis is OJ beliefs are not reality.  The greatest burden of proof falls on T. {ETA May 30, 2017 - The burden of proof falls more greatly on T.}

Does belief in OJ have important consequences ? If you believe it, and especially if you follow OJ it can have  important consequences and enormous costs, including some extremely negative ones. Again the greatest burden of proof falls on T. {ETA May 30, 2017 - The burden of proof falls more greatly on T.}

Some may argue the AT (if brought up as an OJ, call him ACJA) can potentially be  punished by G-d and so that also has consequences thus the greater burden of proof should fall on ACJA. However, that is a threat of punishment, and a threat of a potential consequence versus a real consequence. The latter is more compelling. In addition, other religions also have threats, some threats even worse than OJ  if ACJA don't follow those religions. Does ACJA have the burden of proof  to disprove every religion in the history of mankind ? Moreover, just like in the murder case a potential murderer may walk free, nevertheless, the burden of proof falls on T. 

Do god(s) exist ?

T - I believe so.

AT - I don’t believe so, 

AG - I have no belief on the matter.

Apply the principles I have outlined. 

First: Is belief in god(s) an extraordinary belief ? Something that can not be seen, heard, detected in the lab or by science, tasted, felt, smelled etc: would qualify as extraordinary. The greatest burden of proof is on T. {ETA May 30, 2017 - The burden of proof falls more greatly on T.}

Second: The Null Hypothesis is god(s) are not reality.  The greatest burden of proof falls on T. {ETA May 30, 2017 - The burden of proof falls more greatly on T.}

Third: Does belief in god(s)  have important consequences ? Such beliefs are almost always  associated with religions which are associated with other beliefs, rituals, laws etc: and if you follow the religion it  can have enormous  consequences and costs, including some extremely negative ones. Again the greatest burden of proof falls on T. (Also, see my comments on OJ above).{ETA May 30, 2017 - The burden of proof falls more greatly on T.}

Belief in god(s) and not any religion, something like Deism  would have fewer potential negative consequences unless it is used as a crutch to avoid learning about how nature works. 

{ETA May 28, 2017 The introduction mentioned the '4 principles' may interact.

For example: There is a man who can without any trickery walk on 10 foot deep water.

T - I believe it is true

AT - I don’t believe it is true

AG - I have no opinion on the matter.

Such an event is outside our everyday experience, miraculous even. Because it is so extraordinary the null hypothesis is the man does not walk on water.   T has the greatest burden of proof. {ETA May 30, 2017 - The burden of proof falls more greatly on T.}

The same reasoning would apply to belief in anything extraordinary and outside of everyday experience: Supernatural, souls, demons, angels, gods, devils,  life after death, etc: Because those beliefs are extraordinary the null hypothesis should be they all are false. Thus the greatest burden of proof falls on anybody who believes such things.}{ETA May 30, 2017 - The burden of proof falls more greatly on people who believe such things.}